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COMPLEX ANTLERS

trampled clown, and the animal contents itself with browsing
upon the adjacent stems. The well - trampled ground gives an
easy footing, and by his powerful horns the great siag is able to
keep Ms enemies at bay.

FIG. 156.ŚMoose.    Alces
Mangi/er tarandus, the Reindeer, is unique among Deer by
reason of the fact that both sexes wear antlers. These antlers
are palmated. The brow tine and the next or bez tine are also
palmated and are directed forwards and a little downwards. The
young are wnspotted. The pelage alters in winter. Like the
Moose, the Reindeer is circiimpolar. As is well known, during the
Pleistocene period the Seindeer extended its range as far as the
South of France. Even in the historic period it is said to have
been, touted in Caithness.
Reindeer, Hfce so many other particularly Arctic animals,
registe migrations. In Spitsbergen, for instance, the animal
s tfte summer to the inland region of the island, and in